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论老子

道,领导也。领导必需要不断呼唤,教导下属以及以身作则。下属的过和错皆因领导懒惰。

 
 
 

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《道德经》第42章(上):古文今用  

2017-07-14 11:08:09|  分类: 《道德经》古文今 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道生一。一生二。二生三。三生万物。万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。

学说1:上帝是怎样创造宇宙万物的

诠释:[UC23][道生一。一生二。二生三。三生万物。万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。]:以下是我非常唠叨的解释老子是怎样描述宇宙创造者是怎样创造宇宙的。如果你不能接受,敬请你宽恕我冒昧陈辞,有辱清听。

从中国文化的博学中,我们的祖先好几次尝试解释宇宙是怎样创造的,因为那时候人类的知识非常有限,所以只能用太极[1]的说法以及老子的《道德经》这一部书作为参考。虽然《道德经》看起来是一些玄之又玄的理论,而现代的人士认为它并不是科学的,著作只能尽自己最大的能力描述这一章,之后竟然发现它符合我们现代的科学理论。让我好问决疑[2]的是,到底老子是怎样得到这些智慧的?简单地说,老子老早就已经找到最基本的答案来解释上帝创造宇宙的整个过程了。

首先,请让我们借用太极这一个名词来解释宇宙的创造。

更精细地说,当宇宙还没有形成的时候,它是无极的状态,因此无极所阐述的就是空无一物的状态。所谓空无一物[3]的状态不等于说宇宙是完全黑暗的,相反,这时候的宇宙的状态却是光亮的,那意味无极的状态起首就是光。然后则是由光开始去创造宇宙。是谁创造了宇宙呢?答案就是光[4]

当宇宙还没有形成的时候,只有这第一道光(也叫上帝)。久而久之,祂觉得自己太孤单了,因此,祂开始创造其他的光,这些所谓祂所创造的光,在粒子理论上,物理学家命名光为光子(photon),也称为基本粒子(elementary particle)。

在粒子物理学,我们不知道基本粒子是不是有更小的粒子(sub-structure),因此,物理学家认为基本粒子就是构成宇宙的根本基础块,所有其他粒子都是从这些基本粒子创造出来的。

在物理科学,光属于电磁频谱的广泛,从现代无线电对γ射线用在短波低端频率,覆盖了从几千公里的波到短至一个原子大小的长度。长波的长度限制则是宇宙本身的大小,而被认为是短的波长其长度的限制在于大概普朗克(Planck)的长度,虽然在原则上频谱是无限而又连绵不断的,例如,阳光的范围只有380至780纳米。顾名思义,阳光是人类肉眼只能看得见的范围。出于这个原因,我们不能看到第一道光或其他的光子,因为祂们的电磁波谱不在人类可见得到光的范围之内。

[道生一]:就说道是上帝,而上帝的第一次创造成果就是很多很多,不可能计算的光子。如果你允许的话,我想用另外一个词来代表光,即天灵(spirit)。祂创造天灵之后,空无一物的宇宙变成另外一个太极状态,而这个太极状态只有上帝和数不尽的天灵,每一个天灵都是模仿上帝本身而创造的光子。

这时候的太极是指宇宙最原始的状态,即阴阳未分的混沌时期。这时候的太极状态,宇宙里只有上帝和天灵(或光子)。接下来,光子就是宇宙的本源,是后来上帝是用光子来形成万物的基础块,继而创造了宇宙。

[一生二]:就是我们所熟悉的太极生两仪的说法。过了很久,上帝灵机一动,将阴阳未分混沌时期的一些光子分成两组种类,然后将它们变成物理学的电子(electron)与质子(proton)。电子与质子就是两仪;电子与质子,一个属于阴,而另外一个属于阳。由此可见,“太极生两仪”,即“太极生阴阳”,而阴阳就是质子与电子。

备注:光子是怎样变成电子或质子的?至今天,科学家还没能找到解答呢!著作自然也不知晓其中的原理。

[二生三]:就是阴阳交感化合。上帝继续将电子和质子融合在一起,然后使之交感化合成为另外的一样东西(既是第一个原子或atom),这第一个原子就是氢(化学元素, 符号为H)。当电子与质子不是在交感或和谐的状态中,所谓的氢原子就不稳定而存在和谐的状态中,其电子很容易从氢原子分拆变成负离子,因而遗留的质子也就变成正离子。这整个创造氢的过程就是《老子》所说的“二生三”,其条件是阴阳必须要交感化合。

[三生万物]:就是太极含三为一,除了电子与质子,那第三个基础块是什么呢?它就是中子。

上帝将无数的氢原子合并在一起试图创造另外一种全新的东西,但在试验中屡次都失败了。过了许久,上帝才创造了中子(neutron),它不像质子那样,它本身不带电荷。上帝将质子的电荷去掉之后所创造的就是中子。中子是一种电中性的粒子,具有与质子大约相同的质量。

“三生万物”的“三”字指的是电子、质子与中子。绝大多数的原子核(nucleus)都由中子和质子组成的(仅有氢的原子核例外,它是由单单一个质子构成的)。当上帝将区区两个原子融合在一起,然后想尽办法使两个原子中的电子和质子必须要重新交感或和谐在另外一种状态,这是一件不容易的事情,因为单凭两个质子组成的原子核心(nucleus)是不稳定的,因两个质子是同类,所以相互排斥。当祂将一个中子和氢原子合并就可以造成一个全新的原子核,就这样上帝创造了氘(化学元素,符号为D或2H)。如将氘、氢和氧融合在一起便是重水(DHO),比一般由二氢一氧(H2O)化成的普通的水还要重,原因是氘的原子核多了一个中子。

随后,上帝将两个氘原子融合在一起,因而成功地创造了氦(化学元素, 符号为He),是化学元素周期表上第二个元素。当祂将三个氘子再多加一个中子合并起来,所融合的原子核就是锂(化学元素,符号为Li,其原子核有三个质子和四个中子),也就是化学元素周期表上第三个元素。在这里,“三”所指的就是创造原子所需要的质子、中子以及电子。

上帝不断地将无数的质子、中子以及电子融合起来,终于完成了化学元素周期表上的所有元素。这一系列的元素就是“太极含三为一”的铁证,也描述了上帝是怎样创造宇宙所有的元素,而且每一个元素都是在稳定以及和谐的状态中(万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和),所以每一个元素也可以说是一个小太极,因此,“因万物由阴阳而化生,故万物各具一太极”的说法并没有错。

上帝将化学元素周期表上的无数元素凝结起来创造了许多太阳,随之也创造了许多行星,然后祂把这些行星围绕着许多个太阳,因此,无数的星系其中有一些太阳是有许多行星围绕着它们的。我们的地球是银河系的其中一个太阳的行星。地球也是一个拥有化学元素周期表上的所有元素的行星。

在地球上,上帝继续将不同的元素合并在一起,例如,上帝把无数的碳压缩在一起成为煤。今天我们开采的煤矿很可能就是在很久以前上帝在创造地球的时候,将无数的碳压缩一起成为埋在地底下的煤。祂又将两个氢原子与一个氧原子合并成为水(化学符号为H2O)的分子(molecule)。上帝继而不断努力创造无数的其他分子(molecules)。上帝将化学元素周期表上的所有元素以及无数的分子搅拌,然后压缩在一起成为我们今天的地球。

不知道若干年后,上帝灵机一动,尝试将水、气体、能量以及电融合在一起创造了第一个活细胞[5]。上帝很努力地不断创造许多不同的活细胞,终于完成了我们在地球上所看到各种活生生的生物:即在地球上所有的活细胞、植物与动物。这时候,这个漂亮又富有活性生物的地球,上帝称之为伊甸园(garden Eden)。

总结,上帝就是宇宙里的第一道光,宇宙里所有的万物且且是由祂创造的。

 
How God created the universe - in Lao Zi’s words 

[UC23]Exegesis:道 is The Creator of the Universe.

The ancient Chinese people, on several occasions, had tried to explain how the universe was created. With limited knowledge then, their philosophers used the phrase, Tai Chi (太极; pinyin: tài jí) which was first mentioned in 《道德经》 (pinyin Romanization is Dao De Jing, the Wade–Giles Romanization is Tao Te Ching) which is a scripture written by the great Chinese philosopher Lao Zi (老子). Through these texts, I would like to use them to explain how Lao Zi tried to unveil how God created the universe.

The phrase Tai Chi, is used to describe how the universe evolved from a state of absolute nothingness to a stable state called, Tai Chi. As the process of creation developed over a timeless period of time, it formed different Tai Chi states. During each Tai Chi state, different sets of objects were put into existence in the universe. Nobody knows how many Tai Chi states the universe had gone through before it finally settled down to the current Tai Chi state.

Let’s take half a step back to the time before the first Tai Chi state of the universe was created. Then and there, there was absolutely no mass (to be exact) and we named it Wu Ji (无极). First and foremost, absolute no mass, does not mean absolutely nothingness. The universe is an infinitely large body of energy. The author would like to postulate that the first thing that came into existence during this absolute nothingness state was Light, or essentially, light energy. Light, being the first kind of elementary particle in the universe, then went on to create the universe. It was Light which created the universe.

When God first appeared in the universe, He soon felt very lonely. Hence, He went on to create other lights. Among the three Abrahamic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, these other lights were created by (the very first) Light, which is God. Or you might want to describe these lights as the first matter that God created in the universe. This gave rise to the phase, 道生一, in which 道 means God, and 一 means the very first object that God created, lights (‘l’ is in small case).

In Particle Physics, an elementary particle is not known to have a sub-structure and it therefore, is not made up of smaller particles. And so, these elementary particles are the basic foundation blocks for the universe, where all the other particles were created from. By the way, physicists name elementary particles as lights (or photons).

How did God make use of the elementary particles, that is, lights (or photons), to create the universe?

This was how Laozi described the creation of the universe. Dao created the first object (道生一), that is, from the state of Wu Ji to the first stable Tai Chi state (就是无极生太极). From the first elementary object, the second object was created (一生二), that is, from the first Tai Chi state, the Yin and Yang states were created (就是太极生两仪). From these two elements, the third element was created (二生三), that is, the result of Yin and Yang harmonizing together as one to form the third object (就是阴阳交感化合). It was from these first three basic elements that all the other objects in the universe were created (三生万物) through a process described as “Tai Chi, consisting of three objects as one (就是太极含三为一).

In accordance with the above explanations, ‘Dao created the first object’, which actually means ‘God created the first object called lights (or scientifically called photons)’. Immediately after the creation of photons, the universe became a new Tai Chi state. What is the Tai Chi state at this juncture?

The state of Tai Chi immediately after the creation of photons or light particles, describes the universe at its most fundamental state. This is a state when it was not yet clearly divided into Yin and Yang. During this very first Tai Chi state, essentially, the universe was made up of God and all the light particles. These lights or photons are the fundamental building blocks from which all other objects in the universe that would be created later. However, how were the photons changed into all the other objects?

Note: Up till today, the scientists have not got an answer yet.

As time passed, God suddenly thought of splitting (or turning) the photons into two categories. In today’s physical terms, these are called electrons and protons. The second Tai Chi state of the universe was essentially made up of three things: photons, electrons and protons. This process tells us that God created electrons and protons (or Yin and Yang) out of the initial Tai Chi state where there were then, only lights (photons).

God continued to experiment with the combination of electrons and protons and harmonized them to form a new object (atom) called hydrogen. If the electron and proton of a hydrogen atom are not in harmony, its electron will spin off, leaving behind a cation, or positive ion. We can safely say the fourth element which God created after photons, electrons and protons is hydrogen.

God went on to experiment with fusing the hydrogen atoms together to form new object, but failed repeatedly. Over time, God thought of a new idea and He created neutrons. Unlike protons, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and its mass is slightly heavier than that of a proton. God went on to fuse billions of hydrogen and neutrons and harmonized them to form an object called sun. A sun is a huge mass consisting of billions and billions of hydrogen atoms and it produces sunlight. However, the sunlight that lights up the universe is different from the lights called God or photons.

In Physical Science, light waves fall under the broad electromagnetic spectrum that extends from low frequencies used for modern radio to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength end, covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom. The long wavelength limit is the size of the universe itself, while it is believed that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length, although in principle the wave spectrum is infinite and continuous. The visible range of sunlight spans from 380 to 780 nm. As the name suggests, it is this range that is visible to the human naked eye. For this reason, we cannot see photons because their electromagnetic spectrums do not fall under this visible range. Neither can we see God for the same reason. 

God continued with His experiments to create many suns (Most of these suns are the stars that we see hanging in our night sky). God created some super-stars. Some of these super-stars, perhaps because of their huge mass, exploded and these stellar explosions formed nova or super-nova. At that point in time, the universe consisted of photons, electrons, protons, hydrogen and the celestial bodies called suns or exploded nova.

How were all the other objects created? It is through a more complicated process. We need to refer to Lao Zi’s explanations: one, from three basic elements, all the other objects in the universe were created (三生万物); and two, the Tai Chi state that consisted of three different objects harmonized as one (就是太极含三为一). Note: The three objects actually refer to electrons, protons and neutrons.

We all know, with the exception of hydrogen, the nuclei of all the other elements consist of protons and neutrons. After the creation of the suns, God tried to fuse two hydrogen atoms together and repeatedly tried to harmonize the two protons into a stable nucleus but failed. This is because the charges of the two protons repel each other. Note: There isn’t an element in the periodic table whose nucleus has two protons.

God took a step back and inserted a neutron into a hydrogen atom and created a new atom called Deuterium. A Deuterium atom has one electron circulating around a nucleus that has a pair of proton and neutron. A Deuterium atom is unlike a Hydrogen atom in that it has one additional neutron in its nucleus. God then fused two Deuterium atoms together and successfully created the second element in our periodic table called Helium (He-4 nuclei has 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and this is by far the most common isotope).

God continued to fuse three Deuterium atoms together to from another element, but failed. He then inserted one additional neutron into the three Deuterium atoms and successfully created Lithium, the third element in the periodic table. A Lithium atom has three protons and four neutrons in its nucleus. May I repeat? The three basic elements mentioned by Lao Zi are electrons, protons and neutrons. With endless patience, God created the full range of elements that appear in the Periodic table. In the process of the creation of each of these elements, God ensured that each element is in a perfect state of harmony among the electrons, protons and neutrons, the result of which is a stable object, each called a Tai Chi. This entire process of creation is described by the phrase: Tai Chi consists of three objects harmonized as one (就是太极含三为一).

God went on to compress all these elements into many planets and spun them round many suns or galactic stars that exist in the universe. This is why in several galaxies we do find the presence of many planets revolving round a star. It is in the galaxy Milky Way that our planet Earth revolves round our sun, together with eight other planets. Planet Earth is the only planet that consists of the full range of elements in the Periodic table.

The above merely describes how God created the heavenly bodies in the universe. What about the many creations on the surface of the planet Earth? How did God create all the living things on Earth?

On Earth, God continued to experiment with the combination of different elements. For example, He compressed carbon into coal and diamond, and combined two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom to form the water molecule (H2O). God went on to create many other molecules. God then mixed all these molecules and elements together and compressed them into what we call Earth. If you were to mine coal, it could be the result of God compressing billions and billions of carbon elements into many layers of coal that were buried beneath the top soil.

Time passed and God suddenly found a way to combine water, gases, energy and electrical signals to form the first living cell. God worked hard to create many different kinds of living cells. He eventually created the higher forms that make up the plant and animal kingdoms. This was how God created all the living things that we see on Earth. God called Earth Eden.

Summing up, God is the first Light in the universe. He went on to create other light particles called photons, then electrons, protons and neutrons before He finally created molecular structures and living cells that made up all the objects that we see in our universe today. 


[1] 声明:这是笔者对“太极”的定义。您可能不敢苟同。其实,我们已经不可能到回去追讨老子创作这个词的定义了。

[2] 喜欢向别人请教,以解决自己的疑问。

[3] 如果你说无极是全黑暗无一物的状况,那第一个到来的物体时什么?如果是光的话,我们的研究话题就由有了光为开始点也无妨。备注:至于光是怎样到来的?著作全放弃,因为老子写这一章的用意是从先有了上帝,之后再由祂创造天地的。

[4] 声明:以今天的语言来说, 光就是上帝。如果上帝是宇宙的创造者,那么谁创造上帝呢?这部书没有准备解答这个问题,它只追忆到远古时期有一个创造宇宙的神,是祂创造了这个宇宙的万物。

[5]没有人知道怎样将水、气体、能量和电信号相结合而形成一个活细胞。如果我们可以的话,我们便可以扮演上帝或拥有了很接近上帝的能力,人类便可以创造全新的另类活细胞了。


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