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论老子

道,领导也。领导必需要不断呼唤,教导下属以及以身作则。下属的过和错皆因领导懒惰。

 
 
 

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How science is used to shut off our inquisitive mind  

2013-06-17 17:34:15|  分类: EDAS-Extremely D |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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        What is science?

The word science comes from the Latin "scientia," meaning knowledge. Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines: natural science and social science. The natural sciences seek to understand how the natural world and universe around us works. There are five major branches: Chemistry, astronomy, earth science, physics, and biology. While social sciences study human behavior and society.

Most ordinary laymen believe science do not lie. However, scientists do unashamedly lie and indeed, they do make blatant lies [1]. Why? It has a lot to do with the ego of the scientists who thought they are the smartest and shall remain to be seen as the smartest of them all.

Here are three key areas in which most scientists lie.

1) Deny the existence of a vast pool of knowledge yet to be understood by scientists

Assume the Universal set[2] is the entire body of knowledge about the understanding of how the natural world and universe around us works. So far, the amount of knowledge proven by scientists is only a small portion of the vast amount of knowledge about how the universe works. See figure 1: A pictorial representation.

Figure 1: Universal Set: Entire body of knowledge about nature

How science is used to shut off our inquisitive mind - 行天之道 - 论老子

       When scientists could not explain a phenomenon, they simply ignore their inability and irresponsibly proclaim, “It is not scientific” and thus, cut off further discussion on the subject. When scientists could not prove a phenomenon, the simple truth is, “Scientists are not able to prove it scientifically.” It does not mean an observed phenomenon is not scientific. Please reject the blatant statement: It is not scientific. 

For example, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are more accurately described as the acts of God than mere seismic movements because even though we can measure seismic movements, we are no sure what caused these events. Here, it tries to imply ‘the act of God’ is not scientific.

What causes the four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter? Here is the answer. As our Earth orbits around the Sun, it rotates about its own axis that wobbles by up to 22 degrees. If you were to ask: “What causes our Earth wobbles by 22 degrees”, until today, scientists could not provide an explanation. Do you want to imply the phenomenon, that is, “our Earth wobbles by 22 degrees when it completes a full orbit around the Sun” is not scientific?  

2) Use of inductive argument to cover up lack of conclusive facts

Mankind had always observed this phenomenon: the sun always rises from the east and sets on the west. This phenomenon repeats itself every day. However, mankind could not explain it and had to wait till 1543 when Nicolaus Copernicus[[3]] formulated a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology that our Earth orbits around the Sun.

Here is the classic beginning of all scientific lies. Ever since 1543, Copernicus (and all scientists) had used the visual presentation of the sun as the center of our Solar system with nine revolving planets, including planet Earth to displace the Earth from the center of the universe. This is a mere inductive argument[[4]] which fails miserably to defend itself against its counter-argument: The sun is at the center of our Solar System does not means the Earth is not at the center of the universe. In the first place, the universe is so huge that it is impossible for scientists to first determine our Milky Way is at the center of the universe and second, prove that our Solar System is at the center of the Milky Way.

How could this gross misrepresentation of scientific facts that had stood for five centuries?

Let’s ask ourselves a simple, but more exacting question: Where is the center of activities of the universe? The answer is right here, Earth. The multitude of living organisms and the huge variety of activities that each organism exhibits is unmatched by any in the universe. Comparatively, other than our planet Earth, all the other heavenly bodies do not have life in them, at least no proven till now.

Following are two more widely accepted inductive arguments that are not conclusive at all because of severe lacking in scientific facts or evidences.

One, for centuries, coal has been described as a fossil fuel. Coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over a long period. The facts in italics are mere premises to the inductive argument: coal is fossil fuel.

Fact one: Coal is primarily carbon and comes with some other impurities such as hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen. How could dead plant matter congregated into fine and homogenous layers of coal? Please visit an open cast coal mine and you can tell clearly why coal cannot be formed from dead plant matter.

Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure. The facts in italics are mere premises to the inductive argument: petroleum is fossil fuel. This is a mind-boggling question: How could liquid organic compounds congregate or pool together into huge reservoirs? Are the sedimentary rocks porous?

Fact two: Hardened clay which is much softer than sedimentary rocks is already non-porous and effectively prevented water from seeping through.

3) The veil of misinformation

Here is the tool that fools every one, almost without fail. This tool is called, “The veil of misinformation” and its principle is very simple. There is no need to tell lies. Just cover up some important information so that the audience couldn’t see the whole picture. The audience will be fooled by what they see or hear. In other words, just tell the good aspects of a subject and hide all its negative aspects.

I preferred to call this tool, “The Bendan Theory” (in Chinese, 笨蛋理论). In the Chinese language, 笨蛋 (pronounce as bèn dàn) means a fool. It is the mother theory of social science. Why do I say so?

All theories on social science must be tested against this theory to test the integrity of the scientist if he had purportedly covered up some important information.

Let’s visit two areas of scientific management: management science and political science.

A) Management science

Scientific management founded by Federick Taylor[[5]], was one of the first attempts to systematically treat management and process improvement as a scientific problem. It was probably the first to do so in a "bottom-up" way, which is a concept that remains useful even today. Scientific management first became famous for its study of human behavior. With the advancement of statistical methods, quality assurance and quality control could begin in the 1920s and 1930s. During the 1940s and 1950s, the body of knowledge for doing scientific management evolved into operations management, operations research, and management cybernetics. In the 1980s total quality management became widely popular, and in the 1990s "re-engineering" went from a simple word to a mystique evolution. Today's Six Sigma and lean manufacturing could be seen as new kinds of scientific management, although their evolution had distanced from the original Toyota Production System, a kind of scientific management that elevated Taylor’s works to a much higher plane of manufacturing efficiency and effectiveness.

Modern human resources management centers on two behavioral aspects of management: leadership principles and management tools. Let’s begins by defining these two terms.

Management can be defined as the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of resources to achieve goals effectively and efficiently. Management is getting things done through people.

Leadership is getting others to do things you want done and feel good about it.[[6]]

This is a simple illustration.

A manager would say, “You have to trim your department’s annual budget by 10%.”

A leader would say, “Come! Let’s sit down together and see how we can reduce your department’s annual budget by 10%.”

An inspiring leader would say, “Let’s review your department’s annual budget. In the process, we shall develop strategies to reduce your budget by 10%.” 

However, in most (99%) companies, the CEO goes by the top-down approach and cascades down his demand for everyone to trim their annual budget by 10% in order to achieve his own goal of reducing cost by 10%. He has no time to lead his subordinates. Few (1% or less) CEO takes the bottom-up approach where he reviews how the total cost expenditure rolls up to give him the desired 10% cost reduction and supported by firm plan of actions, tactics or strategies.

Yet, literatures on scientific management describe, perhaps, a hundred different management tools, and very few management books describe leadership principles. The entire branch of knowledge about scientific leadership principles is completely missing because this is the first time the phrase “scientific leadership” is coined.

Here are three possibilities of how management science is used to shut out our inquisitive mind.

1. Deny: Ignore the term “scientific leadership” totally because nobody knows what it is about.

2. Use inductive judgment: Scientific management is all about getting things done through people. Quietly, refute the need for the scientific leadership.

3. Use the veil of misinformation: Scientific management is all about management tools, and stop short of discussing the need for leadership principles.

B)  Political science

The author had defined altogether 225 leadership principles detailing how country leaders should do to lead its citizens. By the way, the original writings of these 225 leadership principles dated more than 2,500 years ago. The author merely translated the book “Daodejing” or 《道德经》 written by Laozi.

Let’s see how many scientists visit these 225 leadership principles and subsequently carry out some research to prove them as a collection of knowledge about scientific leadership. Or, they simply deny these leadership principles as non-scientific, or stick to inductive agreement that scientific management is all that a leader needs to know or there is no need for scientific leadership, just covers them up as it has been covered for 2,500 years.

Below are some selected key leadership principles.        

1.     [LP203]He who leads for the sake of everyone in the world is akin to a game of archery where he shoots arrows with a bow at a target (target archery). [LP203a]To those people whose standard of living is higher than the average, it is necessary to suppress their standard of living a little. [LP203b]To those people whose standard of living is far below that of the average people, it is necessary to raise their standard of living. [LP203c]It is absolutely necessary for the higher income earners to pay income tax. On the contrary, [LP203d]the low income earner or people with no income should be supplemented with subsidies or financial help or corresponding assistances.

2.     [LP204]He who leads for the sake of the people taxes the relatively wealthy and thus, subsidizes the poor. On the contrary, [LP205]he who leads for the sake of his personal interests does not do so; instead, he tries to inflict greater losses to those who are already poor to benefit those who are already rich.

3.     [LP95a]True leaders habitually maintain the state of mind of not wanting to do anything that arises out of his wimps and fancies. When there is a need to serve the interests of the people he will take the necessary actions and he knows nothing can stop him leading the people in the implementation of these actions with eventual resounding success. [LP95b]If the rulers and ruling technocrats were to follow the above leadership principle and leave it to the people to exercise their freedom, the society will evolve gradually and quite naturally develop its own customs or culture.

4.     [LP160]To govern a country well one must not be willful and do whatever things merely to satisfy his fanciful ideas, he must restrain from going to war or carry out huge projects that consume a lot of manpower and resources and learn to patiently carry out the mundane tasks.

5.     [LP196]The people go hungry because their bosses, landlords, government officials and right up to the top leaders of the country, all cares only for a better living for themselves and willfully imposed all forms of taxes, duties, fees or fines upon them. How they are not going hungry?

6.     [LP197]It is difficult to rule the people because all the bosses, landlords, government officials and right up to the top leaders of the country want to execute many ambitious ideas in a manner that suits their individual whims and fancies, thus, turning the entire society topsy-turvy so much so that it is barely manageable.

7.         [LP9]If the country policies are harsh or had reached a stage of tyranny, they accelerate the downfall of the political regime. Therefore, it is better to stick to the realm of spiritual cultivation of the principle of wuwei or “absolute restrain from executing any willful wish” or “absolute refrain from implementing any wimps and fanciful idea”.

8.      [LP7a]The guidelines in which a sage governs a country are: tone down the desires of the people and stop them from chasing fame and after affluence; satisfy their hungers but not necessary with exotic meals; weaken their ambitions in seeking wealth and fame; provide ample opportunities for them to build up a strong physical body; often make the people less aware of unconventional things and do not incite the desires in them to compete. [LP7b]Henceforth, the smart people dare not try to be witty, cunning and deceitfully come out with all kinds of crafty ideas or tools and its sophisticated derivative plan of actions.

9.      [LP29]If the leaders were to follow strictly to the teaching of the sage and refrain from using any form of wittiness or fraud and deceptions to govern the country, the benefits in which the people would enjoy naturally increases a hundredfold.

10.   [LP61a]Teach the people not show off or seek for praises or admirations from among the public and would rather they stick to their humility and not brag or sing in praises of their modest personal strengths or in some quite insignificant advantages, such as wealth, fame and power. This will gradually build up a common humble behavior where the people speak modestly about themselves and when getting things done, they execute them in humility. [LP61b]Then only the people will get accustomed to love, compassion and kindness, the sum of which cumulates to a mutual caring society. This is an absolutely wonderful environment where people interact with each other based on a love, compassion and kindness, and quite naturally encourage mutual exchange and influence to cultivate a peaceful and harmonious society. This is said to be the zenith of human civilization.

11.   [LP70]A sage must completely eliminate all plans of actions that are excessive or beyond certain limit, for example, avoid a luxurious lifestyle, exercise tight budget control over unwarranted expenses and shun off egoistic or arrogant behaviors.

12.   [LP126]The heart of a sage is a truly selfless. He puts the interests of everyone else in the world as the highest priority. In every respect, he carries a selfless heart (of gold).

13.   [LP131a]A sage who cares for every people is absolutely not biased or treats someone more than equal, simply, he does not practice cronyism. [LP131b]Because he is wholeheartedly worried for the people and their livelihood, therefore, the people pay great attention to people who are around him. This is because a sage teaches and guides the people around him earnestly.

14.   [LP149a]A sage chooses to leave a quiet frugal life-style and comply with the principle of wuwei, for example, not to generate ideas that could instigate desires in the people and by leaving it purely to the people on their own free will and through their own efforts to cultivate customs or norms.

15.   [LP149c]If a sage does not launch a war or build any costly project, the people will be wealthier. [LP149d]If a sage does not wish to inspire the people to chase after fortune, exquisite articles, fame and glory, the people will live a humble and frugal life.

16.   [LP155]That is why a sage cultivates good moral conduct and for this reason he will not bring disasters. He is clean, not corrupted and his integrity assures no one is unnecessarily harmed or injured. His righteous character definitely does not allow him to bully anyone. Even though he had won prominent credits, he would not go on to show off his credentials.

17.   [LP170a]Henceforth, a sage always restraints from wanting to do whatever he wants. [LP170b]He does not treasure gold and silver jewelry and other rare goods as highly valuable items.

18.   [LP189]Henceforth, a sage understands very well that he cannot show off his abilities, he must uphold his own reputation, he cannot casually assume that there is a crisis in order to raise his status.

19.   [LP206]Who has more resources (not just financial resources alone) than the average person and dedicate himself to all the people in the world? [LP206a]Answer: Only a true leader can. [LP206b]Therefore, when a sage executes the above tasks of a redistribution of wealth, he does not show-off his ability/authority and disdains the others.

20.   [LP223a]A sage does not need much time to ponder before taking up an issue. Since everything that needs to be carry out is for the people, of course, he must possessed a much greater capacity than most people to carry it out. [LP223b]Since it is all about improving the standard of living of people, of course, he must have a heart of gold to love and to be kind to them all.

21.   [LP224]True leadership is all about caring for the people, henceforth, it benefits the people and there is absolutely no harm in it at all. [LP225]A sage who leads for the sake of all the people in the world, even if there might be a desire in him to take action(s)  to act or lead, definitely he carries out his duties to benefit the people and not for his personal interests.    

22.   [LP104a]When the rulers and their ruling technocrats accepted God is the only Supreme leader, they will perform their duties faithful to serve all the people (on Earth) and not go against the theory of true leadership as outlined in this book. [LP104b]If the rulers and their ruling technocrats had not been serving the people dutifully in good faith, I am afraid the society would have been brought to its knees and its social fabric utterly shattered into many pieces.


[1] This is a notable quote from Albert Einstein: One reason why mathematics enjoys special esteem, above all other sciences, is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable, while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in constant danger of being overthrown by newly discovered facts.  

[2] Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which are collections of objects. Set theory is commonly employed as a foundational system for mathematics.

[3] He is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.

[4] When scientists could not decisively prove a statement with sufficient scientific facts, often they switch over to make use of an inductive argument to push their point or statement across. An inductive argument is one where the premises do provide some evidence for the truth of the conclusion but this does not means the conclusion is true. In most instances, there is no direct relation between the premises and the conclusion. Henceforth, inductive arguments are not valid or invalid.

[5] Frederick Winslow Taylor was the creator of knowledge management (its development began in the 1880s and 1890s in the manufacturing industry) because the aim of scientific management was to produce knowledge about how to improve work processes. Although the typical application of scientific management was manufacturing, Taylor himself advocated scientific management for all sorts of work, including the management of universities and government, sales process engineering or corporate marketing. Scientific management has had an important influence in sports, where stop watches and motion studies rule the day.

[6] "To paraphrase Dwight D. Eisenhower, 'leadership is the art of getting others to do things you want done and feel good about it.' I would go so far as to say the goal is to get the person to embrace the "mission" and own it." -- Dale Hamby, a former Army major and a teacher at Harrisburg University.

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